A digital microscope that can observe surface structures and 3D objects with clear images thanks to its large depth of field and long observation distance. The Optical Shadow Effect Mode features a combination of specially designed high-resolution lenses, a 4K CMOS, and high-performance lighting that enables minute surface details to be observed and analyzed. Dedicated lenses, a flexible free angle observation as well as multiple lighting and measurement functions ensure precision and make this microscope easily usable for a broad variety of applications.
View, Capture and Measure with an All-in-One System
Observation can be carried out whenever required without user adjustments
Allows examination at high depths. Lenses, cameras and graphics engines are designed in-house, ensuring an optimal balance between depth of field and brightness.
Intuitive microscopy can be performed whenever required, even by first-time users.
Images can be saved and shared easily with minimal effort
Thanks to the built-in 1 TB hard disk drive, observed images can be saved just as they are. Saved images can be shared easily over LAN or with USB devices. Standard reports can be created automatically using commercially available software.
Perform a wide variety of measurements with just one device
2D or 3D measurement can be carried out simply by operating the mouse. Roughness measurement, contamination analysis, grain size measurement and a wide range of other measurements can be carried out with just one device.
High-Resolution Images Draw Out the Finest Details
Optical Shadow Effect Mode
Using a specialised design featuring a High resolution lens, a 4K CMOS image sensor and illumination technology, KEYENCE has developed a whole new method of microscopy.
View, Capture, Measure more intuitively. Easy to use. Entry level microscope. | VHX-970F
The lens unit is comprised of 24 lenses in total, including 13 lenses for the objective section, and 11 lenses for the zoom section. Using a silica lens, the VHX series can correct chromatic aberration.
Digital microscopes use a camera and magnified optics to output a live image to a monitor. From the monitor, the image can be observed, captured, saved, measured, and analysed. Digital microscopes do not have eyepieces, and multiple people can observe the image at the same time.
Benefits of Digital Microscopes
Digital microscopes have a much larger depth of field.
The depth of field is the z-range that is in focus at one time.
A deep depth of field makes observation easier because the entire sample can be viewed without adjusting the lens or stage. A deep depth of field is especially advantageous when viewing samples with uneven surfaces or large changes in height across the surface.
Digital microscopes offer a large working distance (WD). The working distance is the distance from the end of the lens to the target when the target is in focus.
The longer the working distance, the farther into the target the user can observe. Even when the lens is tilted for observation purposes, the lens does not come into contact with the sample. This is especially useful when working with samples that have large changes in height or have features on different Z planes.
Many optical microscopes use a revolver for switching between the objective lenses to change the magnification.
On the other hand, 3D digital microscopes commonly use a zoom lens that the user merely needs to turn the zoom ring in order to change the lens magnification.
With the revolver, if the working distance differs among the lenses, the user must adjust the stage and focus every time the magnification is changed. With zoom lenses, the working distance remains constant, so users can change magnification while still keeping the sample in focus.
Digital Microscopes Case Studies
Automotive and Aerospace Industries
This section introduces applications such as measurement and analysis of contamination of parts in the automotive and aircraft industries, detection of casting errors such as blowholes, and quantification of wear in cutting tools to manage useful life.
It explains the impact of contamination on automotive and aircraft parts, possible causes of poor die casting and how to counter them, and the mechanism of tool wear. The importance of these inspections and issues that arise with conventional methods are also explained.
Electronic Device Industry
This section introduces an example of failure analysis of implemented PCBs and electronic PCBs carried out by observing the cross-section and surface of semiconductor packages and the wire bonding of electronic components. Typical inspection and observation issues are explained, including potential solutions for capturing clear images and measurements.
Medical Device and Cosmetics Industries
This section introduces applications such as measurement and inspection of medical needles, catheters, stents, pacemakers, and other medical items where high levels of quality are required. Examples of application in the cosmetics industry, where accuracy and speed are required in the R&D phase, include observation, measurement, and assessment of skin and hair. The current state of the industries is also explained along with case studies of observation using the latest 4K digital microscope.
Chemical and Materials Industries
Welding installations in chemical plants require highly advanced welding quality. The multi-layer films used in food and pharmaceuticals require high levels of safety and reliability. This section introduces observation of penetration of welded parts, as well as examples of different observations and analyses in the chemical and material industries, including high-functionality multi-layer films.
Analysis of Fractured Metal Surfaces
When observing each of the features of a three-dimensional object, such as fracture surfaces, analysis can take a long time due to the need to adjust the focus many times.
The VHX Series 4K Digital Microscope’s real-time depth composition function allows you to focus across an entire fractured metal surface. This allows for observation and assessment of the many composite features that are present in fractured surfaces, in addition to reducing the time spent adjusting the focus.
Observation, Measurement, and Evaluation of Skin and Hair
When evaluating the depth and fineness of surface features, the smaller the height differences in the features, the lower the contrast becomes, which makes observation and assessment difficult.
The VHX Series 4K Digital Microscope’s multi-lighting function can automatically capture omnidirectional lighting data. By selecting the image most suitable for observation from this data, you can significantly shorten the time needed to set up the lighting.
Observation of Metal Structures
Observation of metal structures takes time because only a part of the field of view is in focus. Observation and analysis of objects such as this also has a learning curve, which is an obstacle to achieving precise results.
The VHX Series 4K Digital Microscope’s real-time composition interface provides depth composition that allows for quick and easy observation of fully focused images. Additionally, automatic grain size analysis can be performed, eliminating user subjectivity.
Observation and Analysis of Microorganisms
Many microorganisms are highly transparent, which makes it hard to obtain contrast in the observation image. As such, high-magnification observation and quantitative analysis are very difficult for filamentous fungi, which grow in three dimensions, and small bacteria. VHX Series Digital Microscopes support various lighting conditions, such as transmitted polarising illumination and coaxial partial illumination, with a single unit, and the High Dynamic Range (HDR) function makes it easy to obtain images with high colour gradation. Furthermore, analyses such as quantitative automatic colony counting using the automatic area measurement/count function can be accessed with simple operations.
Polarised Light Observation for High-Resolution Imaging of Minerals
In polarised light observation of minerals, it is necessary to accurately perceive changes in the viewing method due to the angle. VHX Series Digital Microscopes support polarised light observation with parallel or crossed Nicol prisms and various lighting conditions such as transmitted polarising illumination with a single unit, allowing high-resolution 4K images to be acquired. Automatic control enables advanced observation with simple operations, optimising mineral identification and structure observation and leading to the quantification of evaluation.
Observation and Measurement of Semiconductor Wafers and IC Designs Using Microscopes
VHX Series Digital Microscopes use Optical Shadow Effect Mode, a whole new method of microscopy, to perform clear, high-magnification observation. Operations such as 2D and 3D measurement and automatic area measurement are also handled by this one unit, solving the problems in observation and analysis. Subtle irregularities on a wafer surface can be clearly observed, defective resist film and microscopic foreign particles adhering to a wafer can be observed at high magnifications, and 3D shapes can be measured with high accuracy (with measured values at sub-micrometre levels) and visualised. Furthermore, automatic area measurement of photomasking and profile measurements of foreign particles can also be performed quickly and with simple operations.
Frequently Asked Questions About Digital Microscopes
A wide range of industries including electronics, medical devices, materials research, and automotive all use 3D digital microscopes. More information on applications for each industry can be seen on our Application Examples Page.
Digital microscopes from KEYENCE continue to be the best solution on the market. KEYENCE created the first digital microscope over 20 years ago, and continuously implements direct feedback from customers into subsequent generations of scientific digital microscopes. This enables KEYENCE to always be on the bleeding edge, providing products that solve real problems that users face.
Digital microscopes, compound microscopes, stereoscopes, metallurgical microscopes, and polarising microscopes are all commonly used.
Digital microscopes are characterised by their high observation functionality and ease of use that is independent of the user’s skill level. However, the required performance is quite different, as is the price of the microscope, depending on whether you are using it for personal observation, quality control in manufacturing, or observation for research. Here, we introduce key points to consider when selecting a digital microscope that is suitable for your intended application.
Magnification and field of view (observation range)
The optical magnification of a stereoscopic microscope can be calculated by multiplying the magnification of the objective lens by that of the eyepiece. In the case of digital microscopes, because images are observed on a screen, the magnification is the product of the lens’ optical magnification and the monitor display size. This magnification is called the total magnification, which can be calculated with the following formula:
Total magnification = Monitor magnification x Optical magnification
The optical magnification is indicated by the lens scale. The monitor magnification differs depending on the image sensor and monitor size, and can be calculated with the following formula:
Monitor magnification = (Monitor size in inches x 16*) / Size of image sensor*
* Optical inch size
Conversely, the size of the field of view (observation range) is inversely proportional to the total magnification. For example, consider a magnification of 50x with a 10 x 6 mm area displayed on the monitor. If the magnification is increased to 100x or 200x, the field of view displayed on the monitor decreases to 5 x 3 mm or 2.5 x 1.5 mm, respectively. As shown in this example, while increasing magnification can enlarge the image for better viewing of details, it also narrows the field of view.
A digital microscope has objective magnification, total magnification, and monitor magnification, which means that when selecting a magnification, you must be aware which of these is indicated in catalogues and which part of the observation object you want to study in an enlarged view. Then, you can select the digital microscope with the magnification and field of view that matches your needs.
When using digital microscopes, you can encounter unclear views of objects despite using a high-performance lens if the lighting is not appropriate. To solve this problem, it is important to choose the type of lighting that suits the object to be observed.
There are four major types of illumination, and this section explains the characteristics and advantages of each type.
A: Lens, B: Light source, C: Half mirror, D: Object
Coaxial lighting travels in the same direction as the optical path of the lens. With coaxial illumination, the optical axis of the light emitted onto the object and that of the lens are aligned with a half mirror. This mode of illumination is used for observation of mirrored metal surfaces, smooth plastic surfaces, and objects that specularly reflect light, such as semiconductor wafers, as well as when observing differences in structure or surface gloss instead of features.
A: Lens, B: Object
Ring lighting is emitted diagonally from both sides of the lens. This mode of illumination allows for clear capture of contours due to the contrast created by surface features. It is primarily used at magnifications from 50x to 300x for observing objects with rough surfaces or objects with no gloss or lustre.
A: Lens, B: Glass plate, C: Object, D: Light source
With transmitted lighting, light from beneath a transparent target and passes through the lens into the image sensor. For this reason, lenses with a large depth of field are suitable considering the thickness of targets. This mode of illumination is used for observation of features within a transparent object, emulsions in liquids, and microorganisms.
The direction of light can be changed in real time to emphasise the status of features. Light is emitted onto the target and can be adjusted in real time, allowing for observation of fine features.
One of the most useful features of digital microscopes is that more than one person can look at the microscopic image at the same time. This allows for capturing parts of interest as videos and displaying detailed parts on a monitor for visual checking by multiple people, which can facilitate quick sharing of problems.
The resolution of the monitor can vary from around 2 megapixels to 10 megapixels and up. It is important to select the resolution according to the purpose, along with the selection of magnification and field of view (observation range).
Sharing observation data acquired with a digital microscope between different departments for analysis and review requires functionality that supports large storage capacity and networking. Some key factors to consider include whether observation images can be saved, whether measurement magnification and lighting settings can be saved, and the availability of analysis software that measures profiles, areas, and counts from observation data.
Example: contamination analysis
Characteristics of KEYENCE microscopes
KEYENCE’s digital integrated microscopes use a telecentric HR lens, a 4K CMOS image sensor, and a 27-inch 4K monitor. The combination of a high-resolution, large depth of field lens, a high-definition, low-noise image sensor, and a large 4K monitor allows for observation with a wide field of view at high magnifications.
For lighting, KEYENCE’s digital microscopes are equipped with a multi-lighting function that automatically applies the optimal lighting pattern. With just one click of a button, the operator can automatically obtain omnidirectional lighting data and select the image that is most suitable for observation.
Saving on-screen images, measurement results, and observation settings is also only one click of a button away. Saved data can quickly be shared throughout your company via a network connection. Reports can be created by installing spreadsheet and word-processing software.
KEYENCE’s digital microscopes are a one-stop solution that not only eliminate burdensome lighting setups while achieving high-resolution observations and high-quality display, but also provide analytical and reporting functions for data sharing and report submission.
Telecentric HR lens with high NA and high resolution
Multi-lighting observation (polished metal surface 1000x)
We have led the way in industrial automation and inspection equipment since 1974. Our commitment to advanced technology and meeting our customers’ needs have elevated us to a leadership position in the marketplace. If you’re ready to buy digital microscopes from the recognised leader in the field, browse our catalogue and get in touch today.
The basic principles and main types of microscopes are explained, including typical performance, illumination method, and observation method.